iStock_000023037295_LargeKids are famous for putting things in their bodily orifices that subsequently require a visit to an ED to assess and remove.  Especially lately, batteries of the button variety seem to be in vogue.  Enter now, as Rick and I discuss on PodMed this week, an actual therapy involving placing a balloon in the nose of a child (!) as a treatment for fluid accumulation in the middle ear following an ear infection, or in the vernacular, middle ear effusion after acute otitis media.  The study is reported in the Canadian Medical Association Journal, and I'm guessing it's just a matter of time before this is the latest on the playground.  And just in time for back to school!

A total of 320 children aged 4-11 who had acute ear infections and effusion were randomized to the nasal balloon three times daily or usual care for a period of three months (!).  The children were amazingly compliant with treatment; at one month 89% were using the balloon as prescribed, and at three months 80% were doing so.  The strategy also resulted in about 12% greater likelihood of resolution of the effusion at both one and three months.  Sounds like a win-win to us.  Other topics this week include depression screening recommendations from the USPSTF, hypothermia for kidney graft donors, and a new treatment for elevated triglycerides, both in NEJM. Until next week, y'all live well.

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HiResThe profound impact of poverty on children has been chronicled in lots of studies, but this week Rick and I discuss on PodMed a study that looks at specific brain areas in kids raised in poverty and those raised without that barrier.  As published in JAMA Pediatrics, the sobering revelation is that in brain areas associated with learning readiness, including the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and hippocampus, reduced gray matter was seen in those raised in poverty.

Brain composition was assessed using MRI scans from 301 participants in the NIH Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development study. One-quarter of sample households reported their total family income below 200% of the federal poverty level, with the remainder spread across the income spectrum.  Educational attainment of parents was also assessed in this study, and perhaps most distressingly, at least for me, college and even graduate degrees of their parents offered no protection with regard to poverty or brain development for those children at the bottom of the income scale.  As I speculate with Rick in the podcast, seems like it should be fairly straightforward to find the smoking gun(s) and develop interventions to overcome this problem.  In our world of abundance, saddling children with such a disability at the very beginning of life is indefensible.

Other topics this week include the interaction of Coumadin with dicloxacillin in JAMA, bystander CPR (2) in the same journal, and likelihood of overcoming obesity in the American Journal of Public Health.  Until next week, y'all live well.

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iStock_000012753279_FullCould one benefit of aging be taking fewer medications?  That outrageous idea may be the upshot of a study Rick and I discuss on PodMed this week, as published in JAMA, taking a look at appropriate management of high blood pressure in those aged 80 and older. The study aggregated six post hoc analyses of data from the Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial, conducted in almost 4000 hypertensive subjects over the age of 80. The analysis concludes that for older folks who are generally healthy and functional, high blood pressure should be managed according to the guidelines for those older than 65, with positive impact on outcome measures such as total mortality and cardiovascular events.  A target systolic blood pressure of 140-150 should be employed, and one or two medications at most, relieving many of the burden of polypharmacy, or at least reducing it. For those who are frail, and already taking a multitude of medications for other conditions, hypertension management should be conservative at best, with that catch all phrase 'individualized treatment' used.

No doubt for many older folks, this relaxation of blood pressure targets will come as a relief, and underscores observations we've made before: as we age our physiology changes, and reasonable accommodation should be made.  Other topics this week include the cost and effectiveness of cholesterol guidelines and a new drug for high potassium, also in JAMA, and in NEJM, a snapshot of community acquired pneumonia.  Until next week, y'all live well.

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iStock_000044730596_Full (1)No one wants to have shots, but they're especially problematic in children.  Welcome then was the news a few years back that a simple tablet placed under the tongue could induce enough tolerance that many children with allergies might forgo allergy shots altogether.  Alas, as Rick and I discuss on PodMed this week, it appears the early results haven't been borne out, at least according to a meta-analysis in JAMA Internal Medicine.

Data was pooled from over 4500 patients in whom sublingual immunotherapy utilizing tablets took place in a randomized controlled trial.  Outcome measures were symptom management and use of medications to control symptoms.  A very modest benefit of sublingual immunotherapy was seen in terms of reduction in symptoms or medication use, while over 60% of study subjects reported adverse events, compared with about 21% of the control population.  Well.  Rather disappointing, as I've already opined, but also calls into question the basis upon which the FDA approved sublingual immunotherapy in 2014.  At the very least calls for re-examination of the issue and perhaps a comparison with standard issue allergy shots.

Other topics this week include extended use of anticoagulation in folks who've had pulmonary embolism without a discernible cause, and continued cognitive decline after stroke, both in JAMA, as well as rates of healthcare workers coming to work while ill, in JAMA Pediatrics.  Until next week, y'all live well.

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iStock_000005928967_Double-120x86Melanoma is a frightening prospect for most, and the number of people who develop it seems to increase all the time.  Now, as Rick and I discuss on PodMed this week, comes a study suggesting that certain citrus fruits, and very specific forms of said fruits, increase the risk of developing this most deadly form of skin cancer.??????? what? These fruits touted as beneficial might actually be detrimental?  Let's take a bit of a closer look at this study published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

The study combines data from the Nurses Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study for a total of more than 100,000 subjects.  Lots of data has been gathered over decades in these vigilant folks, including dietary questionnaires and objective information such as disease development.  The long and short of it in this analysis is a relationship between melanoma development and consumption of grapefruits, but not grapefruit juice, and a less robust relationship between orange juice and the disease, but not whole oranges.  Hmmmm.  Certainly gives pause for contemplation if nothing else, along with speculation on differences in forms and fruits in the citrus family.  Rick and I agree that action points for now are non-existent, unless you're a researcher with money to examine this relationship prospectively.  Garnered lots of media attention, however.

Other topics this week include the diabetes drug liraglutide for obesity in NEJM, stroke treatment guidelines in Stroke, and a vaccine for Helicobacter pylori in the Lancet.  Until next week, y'all live well.

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iStock_000042621248_LargeWith 23 US states and the District of Columbia already having legalized marijuana for medicinal use, Rick and I agree on PodMed this week that the horse is out of the barn with respect to its widespread utilization.  Yet we discuss two studies in JAMA this week examining the trials that have attempted to scrutinize the purported benefits of marijuana and are forced to agree with the editorialist that better trials are needed.  The primary study is a meta-analysis of all databases since inception to April 2015; rather dauntingly comprehensive, we agree! Studies included examined the benefits of medical marijuana for a variety of conditions ranging from side effects of chemotherapy to spasticity. Almost 6500 subjects comprised the study cohort.  In short, the authors found moderate quality evidence that marijuana was beneficial for chronic pain and spasticity, but low quality evidence supporting its use in the remainder of conditions examined.  Moreover, a significant risk of a range of side effects, ranging from dizziness to frank hallucination, was found. Sounds like a need for high quality studies to us.

Other topics this week, all from NEJM, include bridging anticoagulation for those with atrial fibrillation on blood thinners, an antibody to reverse the common anticoagulant dabigatran, and screening for cancer in those who present with unprovoked deep venous thrombosis.  Until next week, y'all live well.

Other topics this week include

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36138532_thumbnailSurgery for acute appendicitis is a time-honored tradition, immortalized in the children's classic 'Madeleine.' Now, however, a study in JAMA and one Rick and I highlight this week on PodMed suggests that a course of antibiotics can help the majority avoid surgery altogether, and for the approximately one-quarter who will need to go to the OR, there is no significant consequence to waiting.  Wow.  Clearly a practice-changing finding if ever we've seen one.  In a study that could only be done outside our litigious culture, Finnish researchers randomized over 500 patients with acute, uncomplicated appendicitis confirmed by CT to either immediate surgery, or "intravenous ertapenem (1 g/d) for 3 days followed by 7 days of oral levofloxacin (500 mg once daily) and metronidazole (500 mg 3 times per day)."  The trial was designed to assess non inferiority of the antibiotic treatment, and just failed to meet that standard of 76% of patients avoiding surgery.  It did, however, have the outcomes I mentioned already.  Rick and I opine that if we presented with acute, uncomplicated appendicitis we would definitely opt for the trial of antibiotics, but concede that some folks might prefer an immediate solution via surgery.  Clearly the study informs shared decision-making between caregiver and patient but will likely take a lot of time to penetrate care patterns domestically.

Other topics this week include pregnancy and lupus, seat belts and motor vehicle fatalities,both in Annals of Internal Medicine,  and knee arthroscopy outcomes in the BMJ. Until next week, y'all live well.

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Screen Shot 2015-06-12 at 10 24 12 AM (2)It's a good bet no one really wants to have a prosthetic leg, but if you need one, the latest iteration as described in JAMA this week and Rick and I discuss on PodMed may be the ticket.  This study had this laudable objective: " To determine the effect of including electromyographic (EMG) data and historical information from prior gait strides in a real-time control system for a powered prosthetic leg capable of level-ground walking, stair ascent and descent, ramp ascent and descent, and natural transitions between these ambulation modes."  Wow. In real time it means that the prosthetic leg used in these 7 patients, all of whom had above-knee amputations but previous use of a prosthesis, both historic and real-time data was gathered and integrated into control of the leg and number of missteps calculated.  In short, the prosthesis was able to reduce the number of missteps, and presumably the likelihood of a fall, and performed well over terrains including stairs and ramps as well as in transitions between them.

One concern I raise to Rick is cost, and that's not addressed here, nor is reliability of this complex prosthesis, but it sounds like an advancement for many.  Other topics this week include surgical mishaps in JAMA Surgery, early CPR and mobile activation in NEJM, and the relationship between obesity and breast cancer, in JAMA Oncology.  Until next week, y'all live well.

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iStock_000020076031_MediumWhen a tumor is removed from the breast, can an approach where the surgeon removes just a bit more tissue surrounding the tumor itself result in fewer reoperations and a lower risk of recurrence, so-called 'cavity shaving'?  A study Rick and I discuss on PodMed this week, and published in the New England Journal of Medicine concludes the answer is yes, with the need for reoperation and risk for recurrence in early stage breast cancer reduced by about 50%.  That's impressive, and well worth considering when a woman has to undergo surgery to remove a breast tumor.

For whom is such an approach warranted?  Women with early stage, smaller tumors, generally speaking. David Euhus, head of breast surgery at Johns Hopkins and author of an earlier study looking at the same issue, says considerations like contour of the breast and symmetry between them also enter the picture, but even so, he advocates for breast sparing surgery for most women and lauds this study.  Other topics this week include breast cancer screening recommendations, long term follow-up in those under treatment for type 2 diabetes, and the addition of another agent to statins to reduce LDL cholesterol and outcomes, all in NEJM.  Until next week, y'all live well.

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iStock_000002874391_MediumNewer oral contraceptives, heralded as providing effective birth control at lower doses and often used to stabilize both menstrual cycles and mood in some women, have been shown to be associated with about twice the risk of developing blood clots, known in the parlance as venous thromboembolism or VTE, when compared with older formulations, a study Rick and I discuss on PodMed this week and published in the British Medical Journal concludes.  As compared with women who have no exposure to oral contraceptives at all the risk is about 4 times higher for VTE, which can be fatal.  Rick points out that while the relative risks are certainly alarming, the absolute risk of blood clot formation is still quite low, about 14-17 excess cases of VTE per 10,000 women treated per year.  Rick offers the opinion that based on this data, which is from a large number of women treated over a lengthy period, if women are going to use oral contraceptives perhaps they should choose the older formulations, but he also advocates for a discussion with a care provider to weigh the relative risks and benefits.

Other topics this week include aflatoxin and gallbladder cancer, and an association between elevated thyroid hormone levels and fracture risk, both in JAMA, as well as efflux of high density lipoprotein and heart disease in the Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology.  Until next week, y'all live well.

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